By Arthur D. Efland
Fresh debates at the position of the humanities in American lifestyles has refocused awareness on artwork schooling in faculties. during this e-book, the writer places present debate and matters in a well-researched ancient standpoint. He examines the institutional settings of paintings schooling all through Western historical past, the social forces that experience formed it and the evolution and influence of trade streams of impact on current perform. The ebook treats the visible arts on the subject of advancements regularly schooling and specific emphasis is put on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and at the social context that has affected our inspiration of paintings at the present time. The ebook is meant as a major textual content in historical past of paintings schooling classes, as a supplemental textual content in classes in paintings schooling tools and background of schooling, and as a source for college kids, professors and researchers.
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C. drawing was listed as one of the subjects in school examinations in Teos and Magnesia ad Meandrum. Marrou notes that little is known about the ways drawing was taught, but he believes that children were taught to draw with charcoal and to paint on a board made of boxwood and that the chief activity consisted in drawing from live models. According to Aristotle (Lord, 1982), the chief object of drawing instruction was to make the students judges of the beauty of the human form. Page 13 Art Education in Plato's Republic In the era after Pericles, Athens was further troubled by wars and by the disintegration of its society into rival groups beset with mistrust and conflict.
ISBN 0-8077-2978-7. Title. ) Printed on acid-free paper Manufactured in the United States of America 03 02 01 00 99 9 8 7 6 5 Page v Contents Preface ix Chapter 1 Art Education: Its Social Context 1 Systems of Control 2 Social Context of the Arts 4 Plan of This Book 6 Chapter 2 Western Origins of Art Education 8 Art Education in the Classical Era 8 Teaching the Arts during the Middle Ages 19 Teaching the Visual Arts during the Renaissance 26 The Age of Absolutism and the French Academy 34 Art Education during the Enlightenment 41 Conclusions 46 Chapter 3 The Visual Arts and the Industrial Revolution 49 The Origins of Nineteenth-Century Transformations 49 Professional Art Instruction 52 The Visual Arts in the University 63 Conclusions 71 Chapter 4 The Invention of Common School Art 73 The Common School Movement in the United States 73 European Origins of Common School Pedagogy 76 The Beginnings of Public School Drawing Instruction 79 Impact of Pestalozzian Drawing in the United States 85 The Industrial Drawing Movement 92 Conclusions 113 Page vi Chapter 5 The Stream of Romantic Idealism in Art Education 115 New England Transcendentalism and Education 115 Froebel and the Kindergarten Movement 121 William Torrey Harris and Idealism 130 Ruskin's Influence On Art Education 133 Art in the Education of Women in Nineteenth-Century America 142 Schoolroom Decoration and Picture Study 145 Conclusions 146 Chapter 6 Social Darwinism and the Quest for Beauty 148 American Art at the Turn of the Century 150 The British Arts-and-Crafts Movement 151 Influence of Science On Educational Philosophers 156 Educational Movements at the Turn of the Century 160 Art Teaching Prior to World War I 171 Conclusions 185 Chapter 7 The Expressionist and Reconstructionist Streams in Art Education 187 American Art during the Interwar Era 188 The Progressive Education Movement 189 Teaching Art: The Expressive Stream 195 Teaching Art: The Reconstructionist Stream 203 Status of Art Teaching in the Schools 210 The Bauhaus in Germany 214 Visual Arts in Higher Education 219 Surveys of the Arts in America 220 Conclusions 222 Chapter 8 Art Education from World War II to the Present 224 American Art during the Postwar Era 225 The Arts in American Higher Education 225 Twilight of the Progressive Era 227 Teaching Art during and after the War: The Reconstructionist Stream 230 Teaching Art during the Postwar Era: The Expressionist Stream 234 Impact of the Cold War On Art Education 237 Rival Trends in Art Education: 19651975 240 Accountability and Qualitative Inquiry As Rival Movements: 19721980 248 Page vii Excellence and Critical Theory As Rival Movements: The 1980s 252 Postwar Innovations in Art Education 255 The Status of Art Education 258 Conclusions 260 Toward a Harmonious Confluence 262 Notes 267 References 273 Index 291 About the Author 305 Page ix Preface In 1961, while a graduate student at Stanford University, I discovered that art education had a history.
At the age of 7 a form of state training, or agogé, began, lasting for 13 years. From ages 7 to 11 the young boys lived at home and attended classes for games and physical training. From ages 12 to 15 they left home to attend what was in effect a Spartan boarding school, where even tougher treatment was imposed, and following that they received four years of formal military training. The newly trained soldier then began serving the state, a responsibility that continued until the age of 53 (Castle, 1961).