# A return mapping algorithm for plane stress in plasticity by Silmo J.

By Silmo J.

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In many ways, this is no different from using a pair of spreadsheets: one for our customer details and one for their order details. It’s time to look at what we can do using these tables in combination, and start to see the power of databases. We do this by selecting data from both tables at the same time. This is called a join, which, after selection and projection from a single table, is the third most common SQL data-retrieval operation. fm Page 30 Monday, January 24, 2005 4:18 PM 30 CHAPTER 2 ■ RELATIONAL DATABASE PRINCIPLES Suppose we want to list all the orders and the customers who placed them.

If you need to see the data in a particular order, you achieve this by the way it is retrieved from the database, rather than how it is stored. We will see how to retrieve ordered data in Chapter 4, when we look at the ORDER BY clause of the SELECT statement. Choosing Columns If you look back at our original spreadsheet for our customer information in Figure 2-1, you can see that we have already decided on what seems a sensible set of columns for each customer: first name, last name, ZIP code, and so on.

Fm Page 20 Monday, January 24, 2005 4:18 PM 20 CHAPTER 2 ■ RELATIONAL DATABASE PRINCIPLES Figure 2-3. Spreadsheet with repeating order information A SPREADSHEET CHALLENGE Here is an example of how easily you can exceed the capabilities of a spreadsheet. An acquaintance was trying to set up a spreadsheet as a favor for friends who run a small business. This small business makes leather items, and the price of the item depended not only on the time and effort required to make the item, but also on the unit cost of the leather used in the manufacture.