Advanced Simulation and Test Methodologies for VLSI Design by G. Russell, I.L. Sayers

By G. Russell, I.L. Sayers

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20 presents a ripple carry adder for adding two 4-bit binary numbers (x3 x2 x1 x0 and y3 y2 y1 y0). 20, to ensure that the correct sum is calculated, the output carry of a full adder is connected to the input carry of the next full adder, and the rightmost carry in (C0) is wired to a constant 0. 20 Block diagram of a 4-bit ripple carry adder. The ripple carry adder is a parallel adder because all operands are presented at the same time. The adder gets its name because the carry must ripple through all the full adders before the final value is known.

When there is no operand for most of the operations, the machine is called a stack machine. A stack machine uses implicit specification of operands; therefore, the instruction does not need a field to specify the operand. The operands are stored on a stack. Most instructions implicitly use the top operand in the stack. Only the instructions PUSH and POP access memory. For example, to perform the expression Z = X + Y, the following sequence of operations may be used: PUSH X PUSH Y ADD -- load top of stack X -- load top of stack Y -- add top most two operands of stack POP Z -- store top of stack in Z In general, the evaluation of an expression is based on a simple model in this type of machine.

In general, the addition of any pair of floating-point numbers may result in an unnormalized number. In this case, the resulting number should be normalized by shifting the resulting mantissa and adjusting the resulting exponent. Whenever the exponent is increased or decreased, we should check to determine whether an overflow or underflow has occurred in this field. If the exponent cannot fit in its field, an exception is issued. ) We also need to check the size of the resulting mantissa. If the resulting mantissa requires more bits than its field, we must round it to the appropriate number of bits.

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