American Higher Education, Leadership, and Policy: Critical by Penny A. Pasque (auth.)

By Penny A. Pasque (auth.)

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Putnam (1995) states, by analogy with notions of physical capital and human capital—tools and training that enhance individual productivity—social capital refers to features of social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit. (p. 67) The decline of social capital is a theme of Putnam’s work (1995; 2001), yet there may be interventions to increase social capital. One of the central factors in the decline of social capital is television, which is seen as having a profound privatizing impact that undercuts social capital in a society (Putnam, 1995).

25). This vision of competition reallocates state appropriations for colleges and universities to individuals as it supports a market-based and competitive higher education enterprise. Specifically, Brandl and Weber recommend giving directly to individuals who seek education and training 60 percent of state appropriations in the form of learning grants and need-based grants where this “should be thought of as replacing the bulk of the current state appropriations” (p. 25). The authors reserve 30 percent of state appropriations for direct institutional support in the form of block grants to the two public higher education systems in Minnesota.

The qualitative findings suggest that service-learning is effective as it facilitates an increased sense of personal efficacy, awareness of the world, awareness of one’s personal values, and engagement in the classroom. Astin et al. also found that both faculty and students “develop a heightened sense of civic responsibility and personal effectiveness through participation in service-learning courses” (p. 5). Together, the quantitative and qualitative findings suggest that “providing students with an opportunity to process the service experience with each other is a powerful component of both community service and service-learning” (p.

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