An Introduction to R: Notes on R: A Programming Environment by William N. Venables, David M. Smith, R Development Core Team

By William N. Venables, David M. Smith, R Development Core Team

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Each additional line of the file has as its first item a row label and the values for each variable. If the file has one fewer item in its first line than in its second, this arrangement is presumed to be in force. So the first few lines of a file to be read as a data frame might look as follows. 75 01 02 03 04 05 ... heat in the example, as factors. This can be changed if necessary. data") Often you will want to omit including the row labels directly and use the default labels. In this case the file may omit the row label column as in the following.

Ages=c(4,7,9)) Components are always numbered and may always be referred to as such. Thus if Lst is the name of a list with four components, these may be individually referred to as Lst[[1]], Lst[[2]], Lst[[3]] and Lst[[4]]. If, further, Lst[[4]] is a vector subscripted array then Lst[[4]][1] is its first entry. If Lst is a list, then the function length(Lst) gives the number of (top level) components it has. Components of lists may also be named, and in this case the component may be referred to either by giving the component name as a character string in place of the number in double square brackets, or, more conveniently, by giving an expression of the form > name $component_name for the same thing.

Although the answer is already complicated, it is not the whole story. First, if the intercept is omitted in a model that contains a factor term, the first such term is encoded into k columns giving the indicators for all the levels. Second, the whole behavior can be changed by the options setting for contrasts. poly")) The main reason for mentioning this is that R and S have different defaults for unordered factors, S using Helmert contrasts. poly")) This is a deliberate difference, as treatment contrasts (R’s default) are thought easier for newcomers to interpret.

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