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Extra info for NMR Spectroscopy Data Acquisition
3 Coherence Selection - Phase Cycling and Gradients Coherence selection or more correctly the selection of coherence transfer pathways (CT pathways) which contribute to the acquired data is an important part of any pulse sequence. The coherence selection is relevant for • • • • suppression of quadrature detection artefacts ("quad image") suppression of undesired signals - suppression of solvent signal(s) - suppression of signals which rely on multiquantum states during the t1 period of a 2D experiment - suppression of 1H signals which belong to 12C isotopomers suppression of coherences due to relaxation during the pulse sequence frequency discrimination in 2D data The methods available for selecting a particular pathway are phase cycling and pulsed field gradients.
10c) whereas the rephased magnetization components can be detected in a similar manner to the signal directly observed after the initial 90°x pulse (Fig. 10d). The use of gradients for coherence selection is very popular but what is often forgotten is that the spatial evolution depends upon the following properties of the spin system: (1) the gyromagnetic ratio γ of the nuclei whose transverse or multi-quantum coherence evolves under the gradient (2) the coherence order p of the dephased or rephased magnetization coherence.
2. 24 2 Background on Simulation free precession σinitial p1 d2 H1(p1) H2(d2) p3 H3(p3) σfinal σfinal = exp(-i·H1·t) exp(-i·H2·t) exp(-i·H3·t) σinitial exp(i·H1·t) exp(i·H2·t) exp(i·H3·t) Fig. 2: A pulse sequence in density matrix nomenclature. The explicit density matrix calculation is accomplished by the definition of a density matrix for a particular spin system and by the operation of the Hamiltonian’s on the density matrix. In the resulting density matrix σfinal the diagonal elements provide the population of the corresponding spin states whilst the off-diagonal elements represent the transitions.